Not that Goku would lose, he would easily crush Sasuke or any Naruto character, only that you are so incredibly biased against DBZ that you actually seem to believe that ****ing Sasuke would beat Goku.
Pre-skip Sasuke > Pre-Roshi Goku
He can blitz, chidori should be fatal.
Current Sasuke > Pre-Tao Goku
Before Tao's Ma14 speed. Susanoo should make them physically equal, Sasuke winning for the extras he brings to the table.
Sasuke managing to pull off Kirin > Piccolo Daimo saga Goku
The furthest he could possibly go if he fights smart, makes good use of his eyes and ultimately uses Kirin. Not sure where abouts the Sharingan will become ineffective though..
"Gonna need more chloroform..."
"If you look down on us, judge us, condemn us... then you shall fear us!"
The point I'm trying to make is Sasuke wins because Goku can't escape gengestu. It doesn't matter how strong Goku is, in front of Sasuke, his eyes is his weakness. What's the frist thing you do when you fight? You look at your opponent and that's the only way you can begin a fight assuming this fight is made to be fair.
Goku moves so fast, Sasuke would be done before he could initiate a genjutsu.
But how do you know for sure? Maybe Genjutsu don't work on Saiyans? And does Sasuke use his genjutsu to start off most battles? Or does he try to win with taijutsu and special moves because he's a cocky little sh*t who thinks he's the best thing since sliced bread and is still emo about his family getting killed.
Goku's entire race got destroyed and you don't hear him b*tchin and moanin about it.
Genjutsu does not stop a fighter from doing anything. Danzo for example could still activate his sealing jutsu while under a genjutsu. Naruto could still do a Rasengan while under one as well. Goku's AoE is simply too big for it to matter. Never mind that he is much faster than Sasuke and on the norm, Sasuke doesn't use genjutsu like Itachi. If you wanted the fight to go that way, it would have been best to use Itachi instead(Goku would beat him too but in character Itachi is more likely to do what you suggest).
Sasuke loses but random rant is random. Goku doesn't care about the whole Sayain thing because well he didn't even know he was one for so long of his life. Vegeta knew about it(and did indeed complain about it but that's neither here nor there).
It doesn't matter if Goku is stronger, faster, or even cooler; He lost have one important ability to help him to win, his eye sight. If he looks at Sasuke he's done, he'll be under complete hypnosis subject to Sasuske's control. Sasuske is made to win this fight, because no physical exertion is need to beat his opponent. Sasuke will probably test to see if Goku has a counter to his attack, if he doesn't, the fight is clearly over.
You are aware that Goku is in essence the equivalent to a chakra sensor right? Genjutsu might have an effect but it wouldn't last long enough to matter. Goku can fight blind.
However, even supposing Sasuke manages to get off a genjutsu and it leaves Goku trapped and unable to do anything, then Goku will simply be broken out of it when Sasuke attacks him. Pain breaks genjutsu and there is not a technique in Sasuke's arsenal capable of killing Goku before he can counter attack with a much stronger technique(i.e, his fist).
It doesn't matter if he sense chakra or not, his ability is to hypnotize you, which Goku have no way of breaking free of, unless we actually take gengutsu away from Sasuke (basically cheating in my eyes).
But you're trying to portray Sasuke in a light he's not under. He doesn't fight that way. 9/10 the Eye Attack he's used most are Ameterasu and Susanoo. He rarely if ever uses Genjutsu or even Tsukiomi. A large percentage of his fights have been won and lost with no genjutsu involved in any way.
Sasuke has used his eyes to get people to tell him things and...well that's about it. Going so far as to say he'll have complete control over Goku is silly. At the very best, he'll manage to paralyze him. And remember, genjutsu can be stopped with pain.
I meant as far as actual manipulative hypnotism went. Sasuke can make him see things, get him to say things, and as far as I know momentarily paralyze a person. Tsukuyomi allows for him to hurt them too I suppose.